# Voltage Classification of LV, MV and HV

In this blog, we present the definition of LV, MV and HV, the differences between voltages and their usage areas and more for you.

What is the definition of Low Voltage, Medium Voltage and High Voltage?

Electrical power systems can be divided into three main categories: generation, transmission and distribution. Because efficiency considerations each of these categories are operated in different voltage levels. Electricity generation is performed for the most efficient generation voltage for that generation type. Then usually, stepped-up to Extra-High Voltage (EHV) for transmission and this level stepped-down to High-Voltage (HV) level at the sub-transmission. As the energy arrived at the distribution area (where the energy is distributed industrial, commercial, or household consumers) the High-Voltage level is then stepped-down again to Medium-Voltage (MV) level for the distribution and finally if the load point is a household or a commercial consumer, Medium-Voltage is stepped-down to Low-Voltage (LV) level and delivered to the consumers [1, 2]. Medium-Voltage systems can be thought as circulatory system of the whole electrical grid as they are usually the linkage between transmission (HV) and Low-Voltage stages.

Voltage Classification of LV, MV and HV

As it can be understood from the above section Low-Voltage, Medium-Voltage and High-Voltage systems are classified using the voltage levels they are being operated on. There are two systems of Medium-Voltage and Low-Voltage levels: North American (mainly USA) and European [2], these ratings are:

For North America:

·       MV: 4kV to 35kV

·       LV: 120 V

For Europe:

·       MV: 6kV to 33kV

·       LV: 230V

Difference Between High, Medium and Low Voltage

Although it seems like the only difference between these systems are the voltage rating, they are operated together but design considerations and topologies of the systems are significantly different [1]. Because of the voltage and current levels that they are being operated on; while equipment and material that are used in Medium Voltage systems are significantly different from the ones that are used in Low Voltage, they can be like the ones that are being used in High-Voltage. Medium-Voltage circuit breakers that are used in past are oil-type whereas the ones that are currently used are SF6 gas-type or vacuum type. The main reason for this is that the oil-types have a high risk of fire and fault and thus require more maintenance. Generally, Medium Voltage switchgear are placed in the same area with the other switchgear. While this area is usually have air-cooling in some systems, again, SF6 gas might be used.

Medium Voltage and Industry Usage

Medium Voltage systems, which you may have heard of as distribution systems, can be used in a variety of areas ranging from local distribution substations to industrial plants. Although, Medium Voltage substations can be built in indoor areas, they may be built in outdoors where the space is not a problem [3].

According to the different consumers, loads and their needs; Medium Voltage systems can have different designs. When designing a Medium Voltage system; economics, present load, present load trend, future load predictions and uninterrupted operation in fault situation are the primary considerations. In general, when the system is going to be used for an urban application, the system is designed in radial organization. This way, if there is an interruption in one of the lines (or branches), system maneuvers are performed and the consumers in the interrupted branch are continued to be supplied [4]. In some industrial plants, because of the total load size and because of supplying some loads with Medium Voltage is more efficient; the transmission line coming from the transmission station is stepped-down with the plants own Medium Voltage substation and then distributed to the plant. Apart from this scenario, Medium Voltage lines that are coming out from Medium Voltage distribution stations, are stepped-down at the substations that are near to the consumers and further distributed from there. Medium Voltage transformers can be house type or pole mounted type. In urban areas, voltage is stepped-down first in house type primary transformers which are installed in transformer housings that can be easily seen by everyone and then, stepped-down again using pole-mounted secondary transformers and fed to the households. Medium Voltage transformers have the power ratings between 16kVA to 2500kVA and are either single-phase or three-phase. These transformers, generally have two windings per phase and are oil-insulated, natural-cooling type [3]. To prevent any interruption or hazardous accidents, only authorized personnel can enter the enclosed areas of the Medium-Voltage transformers. While in urban areas, the authorization and the access are only on the distribution companies, in industrial plants, personnel who are only authorized and certificated by the internationally recognized institutions can access to and work on the Medium-Voltage transformers.

How Do You Measure Medium Voltage?

In consequence of the high safety risks there must be no interaction with a live Medium Voltage system for performing measurements. But most of the times, online and continuous measurements are required. Therefore, voltage level on the Medium Voltage lines is stepped-down to Low Voltage levels using Current-Transformers (CT) or Measurement-Transformers (MT). As a result, measurement devices can be connected to the output terminals of these transformers where the voltage levels are safer to work with. Also, the output of these CTs and MTs are used to supply permanently installed energy analyzers and control relays.

Medium Voltage Safety Tips

Medium Voltage equipment is generally placed in metal cubicles. In some cubicle’s busbars, circuit-breakers and other switchgear are separated by sheet metal whereas in some they are separated by non-metal materials. In specific type cubicles, equipment is placed in unmountable divisions separately. Due to the high safety risks in Medium-Voltage, the cubicle must not be opened before the system is completely de-energized. Energy presence in these cubicles can be monitored with voltage indicators like ORION EE’s OVI+SR without opening the cubicle. Apart from the fundamental safety measures for working on electrical systems, in Medium-Voltage systems, earthing should be carefully performed to completely de-energize since especially the passive components of the system (such as capacitors and inductors) are able to store energy for short periods of time and only after being sure that the system is completely de-energized and properly connected to the earth, work can start on the system.

Another important safety consideration when working on Medium-Voltage systems is that the Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) that is used for Low-Voltage systems are not suitable for working on Medium-Voltage systems. Therefore, PPEs that are tested on and certified for appropriate voltage levels for Medium-Voltage according to the international standards should be used.

In conclusion, voltage ratings are not the only difference between LV, MV and HV systems. Each have its own purposes for their own application areas and thus, each of them is a specialty area on its own which requires specialized people to design and work on them.

References

[1] Weedy, B. M., Cory, B. J., Jenkins, N., Ekanayake, J. B., & Strbac, G. (2012). Electric power systems. John Wiley & Sons.

[2] Sallam, A. A., & Malik, O. P. (2018). Electric distribution systems.

[3] Warne, D. F. (Ed.). (2005). Newnes electrical power engineer's handbook. Elsevier.

[4] Laughton, M. A., & Say, M. G. (Eds.). (2013). Electrical engineer's reference book. Elsevier.

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#### KVKK

ORION ELEKTRIK ELEKTRONIK BILIŞIM SAN. VE TIC. LTD. ŞTI.

INFORMATION TEXT ON THE PROCUREMENT, PROCESSING AND PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA

1- GENERAL EXPLANATION AND DEFINITIONS

This informative text, ORION ELEKTRIK ELEKTRONIK BILIŞIM SAN. VE TIC. LTD. ŞTI. (Referred to as Orion EE) as the "data controller", in order to fulfill the "disclosure obligation" within the scope of the 10th article of the Law on Protection of Personal Data No.6698.

The meanings of the following terms in the information text refer to the Law No. 6698, the definitions in the Regulations and Communiqués issued regarding this Law, and are as follows.

Personal data: All kinds of information regarding an identified or identifiable natural person,

• Processing of personal data: Obtaining, recording, storing, preserving, changing, reorganizing, disclosing, transferring, taking over, making available to personal data completely or partially automatically or by non-automatic means provided that it is a part of any data recording system. Any transaction performed on data such as classification or prevention of use,
• Related person: The real person whose personal data is processed,
• Explicit consent: Consent on a specific subject, based on information and declared with free will,
• Anonymizing: Making personal data unidentified or unrelated to a natural person, even by matching with other data,
• Data controller: Natural or legal person who determines the purposes and means of processing personal data and is responsible for the establishment and management of the data recording system,
• Data processor: Real or legal person who processes personal data on behalf of the data controller, based on the authority given by the data controller,
• Data recording system: A recording system in which personal data are structured and processed according to certain criteria
• Contact person: The real person who is notified by the data controller during the registration to the Registry for the communication to be established with the Authority regarding the obligations of the legal persons residing in Turkey and the representative of the legal person data controller who are not resident in Turkey within the scope of the Law and the secondary regulations to be issued based on this Law. ,
• Personal data storage and destruction policy: The policy on which data controllers are the basis for the process of determining the maximum time required for the purpose for which personal data are processed and for deletion, destruction and anonymization.

2- INFORMATION ABOUT THE DATA CONTROLLER

In legal entities, the data controller is the legal entity itself. The data controller obligations of legal persons residing in Turkey within the scope of the Law are fulfilled by the body / person or persons authorized to represent and bind the legal entity. The body authorized to represent the legal entity may assign one or more persons in relation to the obligations to be fulfilled in terms of the implementation of the Law. This assignment does not remove the liability of the legal entity pursuant to the provisions of the Law.

Orion EE carries out its activities as a corporate capital company located in Turkey. Information about Orion EE as the data controller is as follows.

Data Supervisor's;

Title: ORION ELEKTRIK ELEKTRONIK BILIŞIM SAN. VE TIC. LTD. ŞTI.

Mersis Number: 647033672200011

Address: Şerifali Mah. Mevdudi Sok. No: 15A 34775 Umraniye Istanbul

Phone: +90 216 217 5309

Registered Electronic Mail (KEP): orion.elektrik@hs01.kep.tr

Contact Person: Ali YILDIRIM

3- OBLIGATIONS OF DATA CONTROLLER

Orion EE, within the scope of the obligation to inform the relevant persons,

Identity of the data controller and, if any, its representative,

• The purpose for which personal data will be processed,
• To whom and for what purpose the processed personal data can be transferred,
• The method and legal reason for collecting personal data,
• What are the rights of the persons whose personal data are processed,
• is obliged to give information about. Orion EE also regarding data security;
• To prevent unlawful processing of personal data,
• To ensure the protection of personal data,

It takes the necessary security measures in order. Orion EE does not disclose the personal data obtained by conducting the necessary audits in order to ensure the implementation of the provisions of Law No. 6698 in its institution or organization, and does not use it for purposes other than processing.

4- PERSONAL DATA TO BE PROCESSED

The personal data to be processed by Orion EE are stated below, and new data may be added and / or changed when required and / or required by law.

Personal data subject to data processing;

• Name, Surname, TR No, Date of Birth, etc. ID information,
• Address, phone, fax, e-mail, etc. contact information,
• Tax Office and Tax Number information,
• Information about employees' wages, social security, bank account numbers, and family members,
• Information about profession and education status,
• Camera recording, fingerprint etc. informations

5- METHODS OF OBTAINING PERSONAL DATA

Personal data can be obtained directly from the person concerned, as well as indirectly, depending on the purpose of acquisition of the acquired data, including but not limited to online sales platforms, camera recording, vendors, solution partner institutions and organizations.

6- PURPOSE OF PROCESSING PERSONAL DATA

Orion EE processes personal data for the following purposes. These purposes;

• Tax, etc. within the scope of tax laws, Turkish Commercial Code No. 6102 and other legal regulations. fulfillment of liabilities regarding public receivables,
• Taking measures regarding the protection of consumer rights within the scope of the Law No. 6502 on the Protection of Consumers,
• Receiving orders for the products that the relevant persons want to purchase from Orion EE, selling the products, delivering the products to the relevant persons, collecting the prices, providing after-sales services for the sold product, measuring customer satisfaction, collecting any complaints and suggestions regarding the sold product or service evaluation,
• Increasing the service quality,
• Carrying out campaigns, promotions, advertisements and promotional activities regarding products and services, providing information on these issues,
• Ensuring internal security, increasing production efficiency,
• Proving the business relationship, recording wages and salary information, making legal notifications to the Finance, Social Security Institution and other institutions, applying the principles of occupational health and safety, fulfilling the obligations arising from the laws, determining working conditions.

7- TRANSFER AND PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA

Orion EE does not transfer the personal data it has obtained for data processing purposes to third parties / institutions without the express consent of the data subject.

8- TAKING EXPRESS CONSENT OF RELATED PERSON IN THE PROCESSING OF PERSONAL DATA

Personal data to be processed by Orion EE are processed by obtaining the "express consent" of the relevant person within the scope of Law No. 6698. Explicit consent; It refers to the consent of the person concerned, which is based on information and will be explained freely on a specific subject.

In accordance with Article 5/2 of Law No.6698, in the event of one of the following conditions, personal data may be processed without the explicit consent of the person concerned.

• It is clearly stipulated in the laws.
• It is compulsory for the protection of the life or physical integrity of the person who is unable to disclose his consent due to actual impossibility or whose consent is not legally valid.
• It is necessary to process personal data belonging to the parties to the contract, provided that it is directly related to the establishment or performance of a contract.
• It is mandatory for the data controller to fulfill his legal obligation.
• It has been made public by the person concerned.
• When data processing is mandatory for the establishment, use or protection of a right.
• If data processing is mandatory for the legitimate interests of the data controller, provided that it does not harm the fundamental rights and freedoms of the person concerned.

9- STORAGE PERIOD OF PERSONAL DATA

Orion EE destroys the personal data (deletes, destroys or anonymizes the personal data) upon the expiration of the purpose of processing personal data, and the expiry of the mandatory retention periods specified in the Laws and other legislation.

10- RIGHTS OF THE RELATED PERSON

The persons concerned have to apply to the data controller and ask about themselves;

• Learning whether personal data is processed,
• Requesting information if personal data has been processed,
• Learning the purpose of processing personal data and whether they are used appropriately for their purpose,
• To know the third parties in the country or abroad to whom personal data have been transferred,
• To request correction of personal data in case of incomplete or incorrect processing,
• Requesting the deletion or destruction of personal data within the framework of the conditions stipulated in the law,
• Request notification of changes regarding personal data to third parties to whom personal data are transferred,
• Object to the occurrence of a result against the person himself by analyzing the processed data exclusively through automated systems,
• To demand the compensation of the damage in case of damage due to the unlawful processing of personal data,has the rights.

11- APPLICATION TO THE DATA CONTROLLER

Natural persons whose personal data are processed may apply to Orion EE regarding their claims within the scope of their rights specified in Article 11 of Law No.6698. The persons concerned can benefit from this right provided that they submit their applications in Turkish. The relevant persons can convey their requests to Orion EE via one of the following communication channels. In this direction, the relevant persons request;

• In writing,
• Via registered electronic mail (KEP) address,
• Through secure electronic signature or mobile signature,
• By using the e-mail address previously notified to Orion EE by the person whose personal data is processed and registered in Orion EE's system,
• In the applications;
• Name, surname and signature if application is in writing,
• For citizens of the Republic of Turkey, T.C. identification number, nationality for foreigners, passport number or identification number, if any,
• Demand, must be found. Information and documents on the subject must be attached to the application. Application requests can be made using the "Application Request Form". For the applications to be made by the relevant persons, the communication channels specified in the "2-INFORMATION RELATED TO THE DATA RESPONSIBLE" section of this informative text can be used.

Orion EE finalizes the requests in the application free of charge as soon as possible and within thirty days at the latest, depending on the nature of the request. However, if the transaction requires an additional cost, a fee may be charged in the amount specified in Article 7 of the "Communiqué on Application Procedures and Principles to Data Officer". In case the application is caused by the error of the data controller, the fee collected is returned to the person concerned.

This informative text has been prepared within the scope of the Law No.6698 and the Regulations and Communiqués published within the scope of the Law and Orion EE personal data processing purposes and policies. Necessary changes can be made in the information text in line with the changes in the relevant legal legislation and / or Orion EE's personal data processing purposes and policies.

The most up-to-date version of the Information Text https://www.orionee.com can be reached at.

ORION ELEKTRIK ELEKTRONIK BILIŞIM SAN. VE TIC. LTD. ŞTI.

Mersis Number: 647033672200011

Address: Şerifali Mah. Mevdudi Sok. No: 15A 34775

Umraniye / Istanbul

Phone: +90 216 217 5309

ORION ELEKTRIK ELEKTRONIK BILIŞIM SAN. VE TIC. LTD. ŞTI. (Hereinafter "Orion EE" or the "Company"), we show the utmost sensitivity to process the personal data of our website visitors in accordance with the Personal Data Protection Law No.6698 and other relevant legislation ("KVK Legislation") and use cookies through our website. We would like to state that we are.

The purpose of this Cookie Policy is about the types of cookies obtained by visiting https://www.orionee.com/ website ("Site") by Site users / members / visitors ("Data Owner") to inform you about.

Cookies are small text files, mostly consisting of letters or numbers, that allow the device to be identified, which is stored on your computer or mobile device ("device") when you visit a website.

By means of cookies, your usage and visiting habits, session information, past transactions and browsing information on the Site are processed.

By Which Method Are Cookies Collected and Used For What Purposes?

• As a company, we process your personal data consisting of log files, blank gif files and / or cookies collected through third party sources in accordance with the KVK Legislation and limited to the following purposes:

• In order to provide better service to our site visitors, your browsing information on the Site is processed, limited to this purpose, it is shared with third parties and stored securely.

• Your past transactions are stored in order to create a summary of your preferences.

• Your browsing information on the Site and / or your usage history on the Site can be monitored in order to make special promotions for you, to offer promotions and marketing offers, to improve the content of the Site for you and / or to determine your preferences with your marketing consent.

• Functional and analytical cookies are used to analyze how the Site is used and to improve your experience of using the Site.

The Company may match the information collected by different methods online and offline, or the information collected from you on the Site at different times, and use this information together with information obtained from other sources such as third parties.

What Types of Cookies Are Used?

Both first-party cookies (placed by the site you are visiting) and third-party cookies (placed by servers other than the site you visit) are used on our site. Below you can find the different types of cookies we use on our Site:

Mandatory (Basic) Cookies: These are the cookies that are mandatory to use in order for the site to function properly and to benefit from its features and services. For example, authentication cookies, which are activated when you log on to our site, ensure that your active session continues when you switch from one page to another on our site. Disabling these cookies may cause services and features to become unavailable.

Session Cookies: These are temporary cookies used during your visit to the site and deleted after the browser is closed. These types of cookies do not contain personal data and help reduce the need for personal data to be transferred over the internet. You can delete or prevent these cookies from being used; However, disabling these cookies may result in decreased Site performance and restricted user experience.

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Flash Cookies: These are cookies used to activate image or audio content on the site.

• Function: Monitoring / Analysis

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• Function: Cross-Site Monitoring

• Purpose of Use: Based on your browsing behavior, our ads can be shown in a special, personalized way for you.

• Operation Method: Provides anonymous information about visitors, such as sites visited before and after the Kütahya Porselen website.

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• Operation Method: The geographical (location) and technical information (ip, device, browser, operating system, etc.) of the users visiting Orion EE.com.tr are provided by the developed adserver software.

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What Are Your Rights as a Data Owner?

In accordance with Article 11 of the KVKK, your personal data,

• learning whether it has been processed,

• requesting information about it if it has been processed,

• learning the purpose of processing and whether they are used appropriately,

• To know the third parties in the country or abroad to whom personal data have been transferred,

• To request correction of personal data in case of incomplete or incorrect processing, and to request notification of the transaction made within this scope to third parties to whom personal data have been transferred,

• To request the deletion or destruction of personal data in the event that the reasons requiring its processing disappear, despite the fact that it has been processed in accordance with the provisions of KVKK and other relevant laws, and to request notification of the transaction made within this scope to third parties to whom personal data has been transferred

• Object to the occurrence of a result against the person himself by analyzing the processed data exclusively through automated systems,

• To request the compensation of the damage in case of damage due to the unlawful processing of personal data.

We would like to inform you that you have the rights.

Your requests regarding your rights in question, preferably by filling in all the information specified in the Relevant Person Application Form on our website,

• Şerifali Mah. Mevdudi Sokak No:15A 34775 Ümraniye İstanbul Türkiye

Coming personally to our head office at Şerifali Mah. Mevdudi Sokak No:15A 34775 Ümraniye İstanbul Türkiye,

• In writing, through a notary public or by registered mail, in order to identify your identity and not to inform the wrong people,

• Via our registered electronic mail (KEP) address in the form of orion.elektrik@hs01.kep.tr,

• By sending an e-mail to info@orionee.com (if any) using the e-mail address previously reported to Orion EE and registered in our systems,

or by other methods to be determined by the Board in the future.

ORION ELEKTRIK ELEKTRONIK BILIŞIM SAN. VE TIC. LTD. ŞTI. RELATED PERSON APPLICATION FORM UNDER THE PROTECTION OF PERSONAL DATA LAW NO.6698

Personal data owners defined as "relevant person" in the Personal Data Protection Law No. 6698 (will be referred to as "KVKK") (will be referred to as "Applicant") are given the following rights within the scope of Article 11 of the KVKK:

• Learning whether your personal data is being processed,

• If your personal data has been processed, to request information regarding this,

• Learning the purpose of processing your personal data and whether they are used appropriately for their purpose,

• To know the third parties in the country or abroad to whom your personal data has been transferred,

• To request correction of your personal data if it is incomplete or incorrectly processed, and to request notification of the transaction made within this scope to third parties to whom your personal data has been transferred,

• To request the deletion or destruction of your personal data in the event that the reasons requiring its processing disappear, despite the fact that it has been processed in accordance with the provisions of other laws and other legislation related to KVKK, and to request the third parties to whom your personal data has been transferred,

• Object to the occurrence of a result against you by analyzing the processed data exclusively through automated systems,

• Request compensation in case you suffer damage due to unlawful processing of your personal data.

Pursuant to the 1st paragraph of Article 13 of the KVKK and the Communiqué on Application Procedures and Principles to the Data Officer, the applications to be made to our Company regarding these rights are either in writing or by using the e-mail address previously notified by you to our Company and registered in our Company's system orionee.com address by sending an e-mail or other methods to be determined in the future by the Personal Data Protection Board (referred to as the "Board"). In this context, the applications to be made to our Company in "written" form, by printing this form;

• By applying to our company personally by the applicant,

• Through a notary public or by registered mail,

• If the Applicant has an e-mail address registered in our Company's systems, they can be sent from this address to our Company's info@orionee.com address by sending an e-mail.

Below, we provide information specific to the written application channels regarding how the written applications will be delivered to us: Application Method Application Address Information to be Specified in the Application Submission Application in person (Application by the applicant personally coming to the application address with a document certifying his identity) Şerifali Mah. Mevdudi Sok. No: 15A 34775 Ümraniye / İstanbul "Request for Information within the Scope of the Law on Protection of Personal Data" will be written on the envelope.